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Kontra im Bridge:






Active Double


This is a call employed in competitive auctions, which strongly implies additional offense strength in case partner may wish to continue to compete. This particular double also indicates strongly the willingness to defend the contract of the opposing side.


Business Double


This designation is / was often employed in early stages of the game of bridge to designate a low-level penalty double. However, the circumstances are that the opposing side makes an opening bid, partner doubles for takeout, and the advancer converts the takeout double for penalty. Frequently the final score would be greater than had the partnership competed for either a partscore or even a game contract. An example follows.


Competitive Double


The Competitive Double was designed to allow the bridge player to invite partner either to bid game, to give partner the chance to sign off in a partscore, or to simply pass for penalty.


Cooperative Double


A cooperative double is a double that provides the partner the option, information for deciding to, or the opportunity of passing for penalties or to continue bidding.


Delayed Double

This is a term for the call of double by a player, who has passed previously in a competitive auction. The significance of this double can have different meanings as established by the partnership agreement, such as penalty or as one-round forcing.


Dobi Double


These doubles were originated with Mr. Melih Öhdil of Turkey. Source. According to the author the doubles were named in memory of his lovely dog Dobi. These doubles are employed following an opening by the opposition of a strong 1 No Trump.


Fisher Doubles


This is the designation for a lead directing double of a No Trump game contract asking for a Minor suit lead, developed by Dr. John Wyatt Fisher, Jr. M.D. of Dallas, Texas, United States. The concept of the Fisher Double is that the opponent, who is not on lead, doubles for the lead of a certain suit, either Clubs or Diamonds.


Lead Directing Double


The employment of this double enables one partner, who is not on lead, to lead a certain and particular card against either a No Trump contract or a suit contract.


Lightner Double


The lightner double is a lead-directing double made by the defender not on lead of a slam contract, developed by the bridge pioneer Mr. Theodore A. Lightner in the year 1929.


Maestro Doubles


This conventional method is used after an opponent opens the auction with 1 No Trump. The range of the No Trump does not affect the effectiveness of this conventional method. However, it should be kept in mind that this particular conventional method is mostly employed by those partnerships employing No Trump defenses along the line of and similar to Hamilton, Cappelletti, and/or especially Astro in any form.


Maximal Doubles


The official designation is maximal double as described in The Official Encyclopedia of Bridge authored by the American Bridge Contract League, Edition 6, page 289. The identical concept is also official designated as maximal overcall double by other authoritative and sponsoring bodies since this type of double only occurs in competition and generally for only two specific bidding sequences. The designation maximal double overcall is also employed to describe this concept.


Mini-Lightner Double


The origin of this conventional method is unknown. As with the original concept of the lightner double, the mini-lightner double can be employed at the four and at the five level in the game of bridge. This is generally the case when the opponents see the strong possibility of a suit contract being declared.


Negative Double


Mr. Alvin Roth and Mr. Tobias Stone  developed the Roth-Stone system, which included the negative double and which also defined the present day parameters of this particular double. The original designation was Sputnik, named for the Russian satellite launched by the Soviet Union October 4, 1957.


Off Shape Takeout Double


Also designated as Minimum Off Shape Takeout Double. This is basically a takeout double made with a holding, which does not correspond to the traditional shape or pattern for a takeout double.


Optional Doubles


The origin of the optional double is unknown and has been modified since the first concept. The optional double, which is generally considered a cooperative double, is used to show a specific shape and a minimum of points to defeat the final contract of the opponents in all probability, and promises support for the partner for any unbid suit. This optional double provides the advancer with the option of either passing for penalty or continuing to compete.


Panther Double


Described, devised, promoted, and published by Mr. Zia Mahmood in the year 1993. The panther double is considered a psychological double, which may cause the opposing side to consider a less secure contract. As the prey runs from the panther, so may the opponent run from the better contract. The presentation is in .pdf file format, which will be automatically opened in a new window. This informatilon can be found on the Internet and has only been archived and preserved on this site in .pdf file format for future reference.


Parking Lot Redoubles


The source for this particular double is The Bridge World, June 1987, Volume 58, Number 9, and authored by Mr. Jerold (Jerry) Fink.


Penalty Double


The origin of the penalty double is unknown. However, it is known that the penalty double is older than the organized game of bridge with its scoring methods devised in the late 1920s and early 1930s. In the card games preceding such scoring methods the penalty double was effective in acquiring a larger score and was mainly devised to painfully punish their opponents for their audacity in competing.


Responding Doubles of 1NT Responses and Rebids


This is a contribution of Mr. Marvin French of San Diego, California, United States, to whom we are indebted. This is a revised version of the original article, which appeared in Popular Bridge magazine of June 1977, and in The Bridge Bulletin of ACBL in February 1995, page 93. This information is presented in .pdf file format and will be automatically opened by your browser in a new window.


Responsive Doubles


This concept was devised by and originated with Dr. F. Fielding-Reid of Dania, Florida, United States. After an opening, a takeout double by partner and a two- or three-level raise by the partner (responder) of the opener, the partner (advancer) of the takeout doubler can also double, thereby providing and communicating descriptive information about his hand. This action is known as a responsive double.


Sohl Doubles


The origin of this call of double is unknown, but it has been rumored to be a double employed at colleges and universities, especially in The Netherlands. The origin for the designation for this double is also unknown, but is believed to be the surname of a bridge player and has no relation to the lebensohl conventional method. Source is from website for the M.A.F. (MAF) Bidding System located on the web and in The Netherlands.


Snap Dragon Doubles


During its course of development and/or employment this concept it also acquired the designation of Fourth Suit Double. The reason for this designation is that the Snap Dragon Double can only be triggered by the player in the fourth seat after the three previous players have bid a suit.


Stripe-tailed Ape Double


In the days of yore when the scoring methods of the game of bridge was evolving a certain Mr. Sam Scaffidi in cooperation, collaboration and possible conspiracy with Mr. John Lowenthal discovered that if the opponents doubled at the five level when the other two players were definitely heading towards a makeable slam contract, then the slam bidders might possibly consider playing at the five level doubled.


Sucker Double

The sucker double is not a conventional method, competitive or otherwise, but rather a tactic employed by a player. It is the designation of a freely bid game or slam contract by a player, who relies completely on defensive high card strength. A disadvantage to such a double is the fact that the double seldom results in more than perhaps a small profit when played against good opponents. Conversely, the end result can result in a complete disaster for the partnership when the double assists the declarer to make the contract by finessing, for instance, the player, who doubled. However, it will prove more the case that the declaring side has unknown distribution strength, or even a void to compensate for the lack of high card points.


Support Doubles - Support Redoubles


The concept of the support double and also the support redouble was devised by Mr. Eric Rodwell, and is a method that enables the opening bidder to clarify or show precisely the degree of support of the suit of the partner or responder. This generally occurs in a competitive auction, in which an opponent interferes at a low level.


Takeout Double


This is the designation for a low-level double in certain circumstances requesting partner to bid an unbid suit. Doubling on the one-level and giving it the interpretation of a penalty double is certainly neither reasonable logic nor reasonable bridge.


Responses to a Takeout Double by Your Partner


The responses to a takeout double are dependent upon the situation. For example, the situation must be clear as to whether the advancer has previously passed or whether has the responder bid over the takeout double. The more preferred responses are presented to the bridge player and these responses are based upon the holding itself.


Thrump Doubles


Instead of describing the Thrump Double independently the author contributed this informative description.. The following description is by Mr. Marty Bergen, who invented and devised the Thrump Double and its application. In case the visitor or bridge student would like to contact Mr. Marty Bergen, he/she can do so by visiting the (website) of Mr. Marty Bergen.


Story of an Accusation

Told by Terence Reese, who along with Boris Shapiro was accused of cheating at the highest levels of bridge.





The Great Bridge Scandal: The Most Famous Cheating Case in the History of the Game [Paperback]

Alan Truscott

In 1965, the bridge world was rocked by an accusation of cheating at the world championships in Buenos Aires. The pair involved were Britain's Terence Reese and Boris Schapiro, two of the world's best players. Now, almost fifty years later, the true inside story can be told - the investigation, the accusation, and the very different results of the World Bridge Federation and British Bridge League inquiries.